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Spanish Pronunc..
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a Like the English a in father (e.g., padre, cama).
b Similar to the English b. At the beginning of a breath group or following an m or n, the Spanish b sounds like the b in bite (e.g., boca, embarasada). In all other situations the Spanish b lies somewhere between the English b and the English v (e.g., tubo, jarabe). Allow a little air to escape between slightly parted lips as you make this latter sound.
c Like the English c. Before a, o, or u it is hard (e.g., cara); before e or i it is soft (e.g., ácido). (In Castilian Spanish, c preceding e or i is pronounced like the th in bath, but this form of Spanish is rarely spoken by Latin Americans.) The Spanish ch sounds like the English ch in child.
d Similar to the English d. At the beginning of a breath group or following l or n, the Spanish d sounds like the English d in dizzy (e.g., dosis, venda). In all other situations the Spanish d lies somewhere between the English d and the th in there (e.g., mudo, nacido). Allow a little air to escape between the tip of your tongue and upper teeth as you make the latter sound.
e Similar to the ey in they (e.g., peso, absceso), unless followed by a consonant in the same syllable, in which case it is closer to the e in sepsis (e.g., esperma, recto).
f Like the English f.
g When followed by a, o, u, or a consonant, the Spanish g is similar to the English g in gout (e.g., gota, grasa). Allow a little air to escape between your tongue and palate as you make this sound. When followed by e or i, the Spanish g is similar to the h in hot shaded slightly toward the English k (e.g., gen, gingiva).
h Silent (e.g., hombre, almohada).
i Like the i in saline or latrine (e.g., orina, signo, sífilis). Preceding another vowel, the Spanish i sounds like the English y. Siesta is pronounced SYES-tah, sodio is pronounced SO-dyoh, viudo is pronounced VYOO-doh, etc. Following another vowel, i forms individual diphthongs: ai sounds like the y in cry (e.g., aire, aislar); ei sounds like the ay in tray (e.g., aceite, afeitar); oi sounds like the oy in boy (e.g., toxoide, coloide); and ui sounds like the ui in suite (e.g., cuidado, ruido).
j The Spanish j is pronounced the same as the Spanish g in gen or gingiva. See above.
k Like the English k. (k is not native to the Spanish alphabet and appears only in foreign words.)
l Similar to the English l (e.g., lado, pelo). The Spanish l is articulated rapidly, never drawn out as in English. The Spanish ll is pronounced somewhere between the ll of million and the y of yes.
m Like the English m.
n Like the English n.
ñ Like the ni in bunion (e.g., baño, sueño).
o Similar to the English o in coma.
p Like the English p in spit. Hold your hand in front of your mouth as you say spit and then pit. Note that less air is expelled in pronouncing spit. The Spanish p is not aspirated, which means little air should be expelled. It is a shorter, more explosive sound than the English p.
q Like the English k. The Spanish q is always followed by u, but lacks the w sound of the English qu. Quinina is pronounced kee-NEE-nah, not kwee-NEE-nah. The kw sound of quit is represented in Spanish by cu, as in cuarto, cuidado, etc.
r Similar to the tt of butter. At the beginning of a word the Spanish r is trilled. The Spanish rr is always trilled.
s Like the English s. Before voiced consonants, the Spanish s sounds like the English z (e.g., espasmo).
t Like the English t in stent. Hold your hand in front of your mouth as you say stent and then tent. Note that less air is expelled in pronouncing stent. The Spanish t is not aspirated, which means little air should be expelled. It is a shorter, more explosive sound than the English t, made by quickly tapping the tip of the tongue against the back of the upper front teeth.
u Like the English u in flu or rule. Be sure not to pronounce it like you (unless it follows an i—see below). The Spanish u has a w sound when it precedes another vowel (e.g., agua, cuello), except in the case of gue, gui, que, and qui, when it is silent (e.g., inguinal, quebrar). The w sound is retained in güe and güi (e.g., agüita, ungüento). The diphthong au sounds like the ow of brow (e.g., aura, trauma). The diphthong iu sounds like the u in acute or use (e.g., viudo, diurético).
v Identical to the Spanish b. See above.
x Like the English x in flex. Before consonants, the Spanish x is often pronounced like the English s (e.g., extra, expediente).
y Similar to the English y (e.g., yeso, yodo). An exception is the word y (meaning and), which is pronounced like the ee in see.
z Like the English s (e.g., nariz, brazo).

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